Ecology of Multitrophic Interactions &  Biomimetism
The major objective of my research work is to understand the mechanisms and ecological consequences of tri-trophic interactions. During my career I have focused my research two different areas: plant-pollinator-predator and plant-herbivore- predator.

March 2011: Doctor of Philosophy Degree (Ph.D.), University of Granada
Sept 2007: Master in Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid
Sept 2001−Sept 05: Bachelor degree in Environmental Sciences, Autonomous University of Madrid.


Jun 06- Feb 10: Doctoral fellowship from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) (I3P-BPD2005).      Department of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology, Experimental Station of Arid Zones      (EEZA, CSIC), Almería, Spain. Supervisor: Dr. Miguel Angel Rodríguez-Gironés Arbolí
Feb 11− Oct 11: Fulltime research assistant at the Department of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology,      Experimental Station of Arid Zones (EEZA, CSIC), Almería, Spain. Supervisor: Dr. Miguel      Angel Rodríguez-Gironés Arbolí
Nov 11− Oct 12: Post-doctoral researcher at Institute de Recherche sur la Biologie de l’Insecte (IRBI),        Université François Rabelais, Tours, France. Supervisor: Dr. Jérôme Casas
Nov 12− June 14 : Researcher at IRBI, Université François Rabelais, Tours, France. Supervisor: Dr. Jérôme         Casas


Jun 06-Aug 06:    Small Ecological Project Grant (SEPG) financed by the British Ecological Society (BES)       ”(Ref.Num: 755/877)
Jun 06- Feb 10:   Doctoral fellowship from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) (I3P-BPD2005)
Jul 07-Oct 07:     Fellowship for stays at foreign institutions (Cambridge University, UK) from the CSIC.
Jan 08- May 08: Fellowship for stays at foreign institutions (Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia) from the      CSIC.
Feb 09-Jun 09:   Fellowship for stays at foreign institutions (Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia) from the       CSIC.


2007-2010: “Response of pollinators to predation risk and resource abundance: psychological mechanisms and evolutionary implications” (CGL2007-63223/BOS) financed by the Ministry of Education and Science. Project leader: M. A. Rodríguez-Gironés
2011-2014: “Colour vision of insect pollinators: beyond the honeybee paradigm”(CLG2010-16795/BOS) financed by the Ministry of Education and Science. Project leader: M. A. Rodríguez-Gironés
2011-2012: "Hormonal mechanisms underlying colour change in crab spiders" financed by the Region Centre, France. Project leader: Jérôme Casas
2012-2014 "Design of pest management in agroforestry systems through the conservation of the natural enemies of the pest" financed by Fondation de France. Project leader: Jérôme Casas


Jul-Aug 2006: Chamela Biological Station, Biology Institute from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, in collaboration with Dr. Dirzo.
Jul-Oct 2007: Cambridge University, UK, in collaboration with Dr. Johnstone.
Jan-May2008: Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, in collaboration with Dr. Herberstein
plant-pollinator interactions, prey-predator interactions, plant-insect coevolution, plant defenses, pest-natural enemies interactions, nutritional ecology of parasitoids, crypsis, physiology of colour change, pigment biochemistry.

Within the plant-pollinator system I studied how two basic needs for any forager, food reward and predation risk, can affect the foraging behaviour of pollinators and in turn the interaction between pollinators and plants. In particular, I focused on the study of the interactions between crab spiders and pollinators. I studied this predator-prey interaction from the perspective of both, the predator and the prey, by studying the hunting behaviour of crab spiders and the antidepredator behaviour of pollinators. One of the most remarkable results of this work show that crab spiders do not seem to be camouflaged from their prey perspective (at least with the species of bees tested so far) and also that social bees are able to emit an evasive alarm pheromone at the flower level to warn conspecifics of the presence of a risky flower.

My aim is to apply DEB model to the natural enemies of pests in a particular Agroforestry system to determine the effect of different agroforestry practices in the control of pests. As a first step I am building a DEB model for holometabolous insects by using as a model species Venturia canescens parasitoids. Once this model is built, we will be able to apply it to other species of holometabolous insects that are natural enemies of pests.

My current project is the beginning of a more general project leaded by Jerôme Casas which aim is the designing of pest management strategies in agroforestry systems through the conservation of the natural enemies of the pest.

Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte

UMR 7261 Faculté des Sciences et Techniques

Avenue Monge, Parc Grandmont  

37200 TOURS (France)

Ana Lopez Llandres Mail: CV Melanie BODY.pdf

In my current post-doctoral position I started the second research area: plant-herbivore-predator interactions. During my current position I am interested in looking at the regulation of herbivore damage through a top down control in the food web, i.e. a control that comes from the top of the food chain. For doing this I am using a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, which is a model that allows us to determine the flow of energy through the organisms: how organisms acquire energy from food and how they use this energy for the different processes during their lives, such as maintenance, growth, reproduction and maturation.

Rodríguez-Gironés, M.A, & Llandres, A. L. 2008. Resource competition triggers the co-evolution of long tongues and deep corolla tubes. PLoS ONE 3: e2992
Llandres, A. L., Rodríguez-Gironés, M.A & Rodolofo Dirzo. 2010. Plant stages with biotic, indirect defences are more palatable and suffer less herbivory than their undefended counterparts. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 101: 536-543
Llandres, A.L., Gawryszewski, F.M., Heiling, A.M., Herberstein, M.E. 2011. The effect of colour variation in predators on the behaviour of pollinators: Australian crab spiders and native bees. Ecological Entomology 36: 72-81
Llandres, A.L. & Rodríguez-Gironés, M.A. 2011. Spider movement, UV reflectance and size but not spider crypsis affect the response of honeybees to Australian crab spiders. PLoS ONE 6(2): e17136
Llandres, A.L. & Rodríguez-Gironés, M.A, De Mas, E. 2012. Response of pollinators to the tradeoff between resource acquisition and predator avoidance. Oikos 121: 687-696.
Gawryszewski, F.M., Llandres, A.L. & Herberstein, M.E. 2012. Relationship between colouration and body condition in a crab spider that lures pollinators. Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 1128-1136.
Llandres, A.L., Gonzálvez, F.G. & Rodríguez-Gironés, M.A. 2013. Social but not solitary bees reject dangerous flowers where a conspecific has recently been attacked. Animal Behaviour 85: 97-102.
Rodríguez-Gironés M. A., Gonzálvez, F.G., Llandres, A.L, Corlett, R. T. & Santamaría, L. 2013. Possible role of weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina, in shaping plant-pollinator interactions in South-East Asia. Journal of Ecology 101: 1000-1006.
Llandres, A.L., Figon, F., Christides, J.P., Mandon, N. & Casas, J. 2013. Environmental and hormonal factors controlling reversible colour change in crab spiders. Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 3886-3895.

In Press
Defrize, J., Llandres, A.L. & Casas, J. 2013. Indirect cues in selecting a hunting site in a sit- and-wait predator. Physiological Entomology, In press.

Other publications
Llandres, A.L. 2007.  Interactions between crab spiders and pollinators: hunting strategis of crab spiders and antipredator strategies of pollinators”, Thèse de doctorat de l’Université de Granada.
Llandres, A.L. 2011. Resources competition triggers the coevolution between long corolla tubes and long tongues”, DEA d’Ecologie a l’Université Complutense de Madrid
Llandres, A.L. 2012. Interacciones entre arañas cangrejo y polinizadores: estrategias de caza de las arañas

 Keywords :

plant-pollinator interactions

prey-predator interactions

plant-insect coevolution plant defenses

pest-natural enemies interactions

nutritional ecology of parasitoids crypsis physiology of colour change

pigment biochemistry

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